The Margining system is a fundamental risk management tool adopted by CC&G.
Each member must pay Margins to cover the theoretical costs of liquidation, which CC&G would incur in the event of a Member’s default in order to close the open position.
Calculation of margins
Margins are calculated using efficient, reliable and accurate systems: the MVP methodology (Method for Porfolio Valuation) for Italian Governments Bonds, the MARS methodology (Margining System) for Equity Derivatives products and for equity cash products, the MMEL methodology (Margins for Electricity Market) for Energy Derivatives and the MMeG methodology (Margins for Wheat Market) for Wheat Derivatives
Bonds Margin Calculation
MVP determines the overall risk exposure for integrated portfolios by grouping Classes of bonds with statistically significant correlation in their sensitivity to interest rates variations, measured by the Duration.
A single net positions is calculated independently from the market origin - MTS, EuroMTS, BrokerTec, DomesticMOT, EuroMOT, ExtraMOT, EuroTLX and Hi-MTF - of the contracts and risk management is accordingly performed on the net positions.
Equity Derivatives and Cash Equity Margin Calculation
MARS is an integrated and coordinated methodology capable of recognizing the overall risk in a portfolio and allowing for the offsetting of risk between closely correlated products, as well as cross-margining between derivatives and equity cash products in the portfolio.
The integration of MARS allows to determine the overall risk exposure for Integrated Portfolios of products with significant price correlation, grouped by:
Product Group: Integrated Portfolio of underlying assets with statistically significant price trend correlation;
Class Group: Integrated Portfolio of cash and derivatives instruments related to the same underlying stock.
In order to benefit from cross-margining on integrated equities cash-derivates portfolios, Members must be General or Individual Clearing Members of both sections, or, if Non-Clearing Members, must use the same General Clearing Member for both sections.
Energy Derivatives Margin Calculation
Derivatives contracts traded on IDEX form an Integrated Portfolio considered as a whole for the purpose of Initial Margins calculation. The MMeL margining methodology has a structure of Classes including all the contracts of the same type (futures or options), with the same underlying (PUN) and the same characteristics (Delivery Period and type of supply: Baseload, Peakload).
Agricultural Commodities Margin Calculation
Derivatives contracts traded on AGREX are aggregated in Integrated Portfolios, evaluated unitarily and consequently subjected to an aggregated calculation of Initial Margins. The MMeG Margining methodology envisages a Class structure capable of classifying the contracts which are actually traded on the market plus additional Classes for managing Delivery Positions Covered and Uncovered and Matched Positions.
Aim of Initial Margin
Initial Margin is called on a daily basis to cover the theoretical costs of liquidation, which CC&G would incur in the event of a Member’s default, in order to close the open positions in the worst possible market scenario, within a maximum price variation range called “Margin Interval”.
The “Margin Interval”, specific for each financial instrument, is periodically reviewed as a result of statistical analysis.
Intraday margins are called by CC&G in case of sudden sharp price variations or in the case of a Member’s excessive overall risk exposure. Intraday Margin is calculated with the same methodology as the Initial Margin.
Initial Margins can be placed in cash (Euro) or in Euro denominated Government Bonds, traded on MTS markets and issued by low credit and market risk Countries. BTPItalia (Italian Governement Bond linked to italian inflation) traded on markets other than MTS are also accepted. Government bonds are marked to market daily, using prices or quotations made available by info providers. The bonds deposited as collateral are grouped in classes of haircut based on their duration. Intraday Margins must be deposited in cash (Euro). Collateral value posted in securities used to cover Initial Margins is determined on the basis of concentration limits.
Four Default Funds, one on the Equities and Derivatives Sections, one on the Energy Derivatives Section, one on the Commodities Agricole Section and the other one on the Bonds Section, are managed by CC&G as an additional protection aimed at covering risks associated with sharp price/interest rate movements.
The Default Fund amounts are calculated as a result of periodic stress tests. The contribution to the Default Fund of each Direct Member is adjusted at least on a monthly basis proportionally to the average Initial Margin paid in the previous month.
The default Fund contribution quota must be deposited in cash (Euro).
A review of all Risk Models is performed at least annually by an independent CC&G Model Validation team, using an internally developed web-based tool (MoVE).
Performance analysis is also carried out thanks to a wide set of benchmark models.
Operational risks are identified, owned, measured, monitored, managed and reported to ensure effective prevention and mitigation of impacts on CC&G.